重听人的个体和社会群体身份

翻译:@乐天洋芋丸子 (枯叶蝶)

Personal and Social Identity of Hard of Hearing People
Mark Ross, Ph.D.
重听人的个体和社会群体身份
Mark Ross,(哲学博士 )

In considering the personal and social identity of hard of hearing people, in the very fact that such an issue is framed for discussion, we clearly mean to contrast our situation to that of people who are physiologically deaf, or who consider themselves socially and culturally Deaf in spite of the existence of significant amounts of residual hearing. But even though it is undisputed that Deaf people exhibit more cohesion and sense of a common destiny than do those who are hard of hearing, we know that it would be extremely simplistic and inaccurate to characterize them as a monolithic entity. There are divisions among deaf people depending upon when the hearing loss was sustained, where their education took place, and their preferred communication system. Within the pre-lingually deaf category, there are subgroups based on religion, ethnicity, common interests, etc., just like in the larger society. Deaf people join these groups to assert their identity both as a Deaf person and as a member of some other category distinct from their hearing losses. But it is important to note that the common factor underlying these subgroup affiliations is their deafness. Indeed, it has been estimated that over half the prelingually deaf people, at least in the more developed countries, are affiliated with some type of local or national group organized on the basis of their common hearing condition. For the majority of Deaf people, then, there is clearly a personal and social identity as a Deaf person, one that is reflected in their affiliations and loyalties

之所以就重听人的个体和社会群体身份这个课题而进行讨论,我们的本意是想把重听人的处境和那些生理学上的聋人(也就是我们说的手语聋人)做一个对比,或者说和那些自认为是社会形态和文化形态代表的聋人们做一个对比。尽管他们也许还余留有相当不错的残余听力。毋庸置疑,聋人较之重听人展示出因其共同命运带来的更强的凝聚力和意识观念。但是我们知道这会导致过分单纯化和错误地把他们描述为一个整体。聋人群体自身也存在差异性,他取决于:听力受到损害的时间、接受教育的地方、以及比较适合他们的沟通体系。在语前聋的范畴当中,存在有以宗教、各族、共同利益等为基础的小团体,就像一个大社会。聋人加入这些组织,显示他们的身份既是一个聋人,又是另一类社会范畴的成员之一,该范畴与听力损失泾渭分明。不过,需着重指出,位于这些小团体联盟之下的共同因素是:聋。确实,至少在相对发达的国家,估计一半以上的语前聋人加盟于当地或全国的组织,该组织是以他们共同的听力状况为基础建立起来的。然后,对于大多数的聋人,在他们的联盟与观念当中表现出其个体和社会群体特性。

Parenthetically, I would like to point out that these comments do not necessarily apply to people whose total deafness was sustained in adulthood. This group is a special case, as we have already seen in some of the papers presented, and yet to be presented, at this Congress. Physiologically deaf, that is with little or no usable residual hearing, late deafened people are nevertheless recognized, and recognize themselves, as a group with overlapping, but still distinct needs and characteristics than either the pre-lingually deafened or the hard of hearing.

附带说明:我想指出这些评论未必适用于那些在成年后听力全部丧失的人。这个群体是特殊体,就像我们已经在提交论文中见过的一样,而且,在这个大会上也还仍 然会呈递这样的论文。生理学上的聋,是指只有很少一点或者完全没有残余听力,后天变聋的人仍然被认为是一个与生理学聋人有相同之处的群体,他们自己也这样 认为,但是,语前聋和重听仍旧有着不同的需求和特性。

As an audiologist for many years, I must say that I feel most comfortable with the physiological aspects of deafness; the fact that its impact is so different depending upon life experiences testifies that much more is involved in the acquisition of personal and social identity than the extent of the hearing loss. For example, I always feel a little surprised, after talking to a person with a hearing loss on the telephone, to have that person identify him or herself as “deaf”. If they could carry on a conversation with me on the telephone, how can they possibly be “deaf”? But this is the Audiologist in me speaking; these experiences serve as a gentle reminder that self-definition involves more than an audiogram.

作为一个具有多年经验的的听力矫正专家,应该说,生理方面的聋最易认识的。由于聋对实际的影响取决于生活经历,而生活经历有着很大的差别,这就证明确认实 力损失者个体和社会的特性要比确认听力损失程度复杂得多。举例来说,当我和一个听力损失者通过电话交谈之后,我总会对他/她认为自己是聋的而略感诧异。如 果他们能与我在电话里交谈,他们怎可能会是聋的?但是出于听力矫正专家角度而言,这些经验有助于委婉地提醒人们:自我定义比一张听力记录单的内容涵盖得更多。

The purpose of my paper, however, is to discuss “The Personal and Social Identity” of hard of hearing people and not Deaf people, either prelingually or post-lingually deafened. My basic theme is that hard of hearing people are a unique, though heterogeneous group, with needs and existential realities different from those manifested by those who are socially or culturally Deaf . Of course, people with hearing losses of whatever degree have much in common, and of course there are people with confused and overlapping identities based on personal realities, but these gray areas should not obscure the valid generalities that can be made. Hard of hearing, in other words, is not some lesser manifestation of “deaf”, but a disability entity in its own right. Of all the confusions that arise regarding hard of hearing people, this one has, I believe, the most far-reaching consequences. Many government bureaucrats and educators do not like, or understand the necessity, of making this distinction. They much prefer to join deaf and hard of hearing together into one category. It makes for a much neater classification system, and precludes the more expensive option of providing a separate program and different services for both groups

我这篇论文的目的是讨论重听人的”个体与社会身份(特性)”,而不是聋人,(不管是语前聋还是语后聋)。我的基本主题是:重听人是一个独特的群体,尽管它 由不同的类型组成,重听的需求及存在的现实都不同于那些社会及文化形态的聋所展示的那样。当然,不管听力损失具体程度如何,听力损失者都有很多共同之处; 当然,有些人由于自身情况而产生身份混淆或者身份重叠;但是,这些灰色地带的存在不应当混淆重听所具备的确凿的普遍性,这个普遍性是能够概括出来的。换言 之,重听并非仅仅是较少的一些”耳聋”表现,而是有着自己权利主张的残疾群体。所产生的所有与重听人有关的困惑中,我相信,这一条具有最广泛深远的影响。 很多政府官僚和教育学者不喜欢,或者不了解做这种区别的必要性。他们大多喜欢把聋和重听联在一起作为一个范畴。这样导致一个更干脆利落的分类系统,排除掉 了昂贵的选择-为两类群体提供单独的方案和不同的服务等。

One major reason why we cannot easily define the “personal and social identity” of hard of hearing people is precisely because there are so many of them – of us – in our societies. In the US, it is estimated that almost one out of every ten people has a hearing loss of sufficient magnitude to interfere with communication in some situations. I suspect that the incidence of hearing loss is at least as great, if not more, in other countries in the world. There are people in every family, and in every social circle, who have a hearing loss; indeed a hearing loss is one of the most common two or three impairments that beset human beings. It is also, perhaps, the most misunderstood, in part, probably, because it is so common. After a lifetime of living with one’s grandmother or spouse, for example, we simply do not expect, understand, or know how to deal with the kinds of behaviors that occur when a hearing loss develops in later life. It has been termed “An Invisible Condition” (Stone, 1993), not because the damage to the auditory system is hidden from our view, which of course it is, but primarily because the effects can be so misunderstood, even by the persons who are themselves afflicted with the condition.

为什么不能很容易地为重听人的”个体和社会特性”准确地下定义的主要原因之一,就是因为在我们的社会中有太多的他们-或曰我们。据估计,在美国每十人中就 有一人的听力损失程度到了足够阻碍他在某些情况下的交流的地步。我怀疑听力损失的发生范围在世界上其它国家如果不是更广,至少也是相当大的。每个家庭,每 个社交圈都有听力损失者;听力损失确实是困扰人类的第二或第三大损害之一。也许它也是被人们误解最深的,某种程度上也许归因于它是如此常见。打个比方,与 祖母或配偶生活了一生那么长后,她们在后来的日子里中形成听力损失时,我们完全无法预料、不明白、不知道如何应付这种变化。它被称为”隐蔽状态” (Stone,1993),不是因为听觉系统的损害在视野中隐藏了-它理所当然看不到,而主要是因为造成的影响可能被深深误解,甚至深受此状况所折磨的人 自己都可能产生误会。

People generally understand the concept of total deafness, that is, the inability to hear any sound at all. By understand, I do not mean to imply that the general public is empathetic to the plight of totally deaf people, or that society as a whole responds sensitively and appropriately to their situation, only that the concept of total deafness is much easier to comprehend than partial particularly late developing, hearing loss. The auditory behavior of people who are completely and physiologically deaf is consistent: when sound occurs they do not respond – period. Not so for people with partial hearing loss, those who are hard of hearing. They may or may not respond to particular sounds, either speech or other acoustic stimuli, depending upon such factors as distance, level and spectrum of competing sounds, the degree of hearing loss and the shape of the audiogram, and the effectiveness of their personal hearing aids. Their speech and language skills will be variably affected depending upon when the hearing loss was sustained, that is in childhood or adulthood, the degree and nature of the hearing loss, and the effectiveness of subsequent therapeutic programs. In spite of all these differences, and in spite of their self-identification, we can define them as physiologically “hard of hearing” if they developed their linguistic skills primarily through the auditory channel, and if they are capable of comprehending verbal messages through listening alone.

人们通常理解全聋的概念,即是根本听不到任何声音。我没有故意暗指公众对全聋人的苦境太投入,也不是说整个社会对全聋者的情况产生了敏锐和合适的反应,只 是说全聋的概念比之特指后来发现的听力损失而言要容易理解得多。生理上全聋的人,他的听力行为始终是一致的:对声音他们不作反应-就这样。对于听力部分损 失者-那些重听人则不是这么回事,他们可以或不可以回应特定的声音-话语或其它的听觉刺激。这取决于下列因素:声音的距离、级别、波幅,听力损失程度,听 力记录的曲线形状,以及他们个人助听器的效力。他们的说话能力和语言文字能力会有不同,这取决于:他们是在孩提时还是成年时受到听力损害,听力损失的程度 和性质,以及后继治疗过程的有效性。不管这些所有的差异,也不管他们如何自我认定,如果他们主要通过听力渠道发展他们的语言能力,如果他们能独自地通过听 来理解言辞消息,我们就能定义他们是生理学的”重听”。

Aside from variations in the extent of the hearing loss itself, it is whether the hearing loss occurred as a child or as an adult that has the greatest impact upon subsequent behavior. The life course confronting hard of hearing children with congenital or pre-lingual hearing loss is quite different from that facing people whose hearing losses were sustained later on in life. While the label “hard of hearing” can fairly be applied to both groups, issues of personal and social identity will be quite dissimilar. Complicating, and often producing later identity preferences, are the children’s early life experiences; when a hearing loss is first detected in a child, we don’t know if the child will eventually function as hard of hearing or deaf. This depends, in large part, on the nature and skill of the educational and therapy program provided the child. We see, and for the last 40 years I have personally seen, many potentially hard of hearing children function as educationally and socially deaf because of inadequate educational programs, particularly in the poor use made of the children’s residual hearing (Ross, 1990; Ross, Bracket & Maxon, 1991). I consider these children as suffering from “iatrogenic”, that is “treatment caused” deafness — or, in this case, the lack of appropriate treatment. At the extreme, in spite of the existence of significant amounts of residual hearing, many of these children are indistinguishable from those with little or no residual hearing, the physiologically deaf. It is, after all, the presence of residual hearing that distinguishes these children from totally deaf children, and if the residual hearing is ignored or inadequately stimulated, the differences between them become obscured. As these potentially hard of hearing children mature, they take their place in the deaf community in which they find their personal and social identity. For all intents and purposes, they are “Deaf”.

除去个体听力损失程度的千差万别之外,发生听力损失时他是一个孩子还是一个成年人是对这个人后来的行为方式造成影响的最强烈的因素。先天或语前失聪的重听 孩子面临的生命历程完全不同于那些听力后来受损的人。当”重听”的标志平等地用于两个群体时,他们的个体与社会的特性则截然不同。孩子早期生活体验中,会 遇到把问题复杂化,也会在后来常常产生身份认识偏差。当听力损失在某个孩子身上第一次检查出来的时候,我们不知道这个孩子最终将成为重听还是聋人。在过去 的40年中我个人已经看到:由于不适当的教育过程,尤其是极少使用孩子的残余听力,很多潜在只是重听的孩子成为了教育及社会意义的聋人 (Ross,1990; Ross, bracket和Maxon,1991)。我认为这些孩子在病症是因医治而引起的,即是说治疗产生的聋-或者说在这种情况下缺乏正确的治疗。尽管还有大量 的残余听力存在,却无法把这些孩子和那听力极少以致完全没有听力的生理学上的聋孩子区别开来。毕竟这些孩子只是在残余听力的表象上不同于那些全聋的孩子。 而且,如果残余听力被忽视或者没有充分激发出来,二者之间的差异就显得很模糊。随着这些潜在重听孩子长大成人,他们立足于聋人社区,在那里他们能发现他们 的个体和社会身份认同。事实上他们是”聋的”。

But let us, for our purposes here, assume that the child emerges from his or her pre-school program as a functionally hard of hearing rather than a deaf child – I specify pre-school since for children with congenital hearing losses this is the crucial educational period – and is being educated in the regular primary and secondary schools. How do these children face the personal and social identity issues that may confront them during and after their enrollment as hard of hearing children in regular school?

但是,出于本文的目的,让我们作一个假设,一个孩子在他的学前过程显示为功能上的重听而非聋孩–我特别指学前过程是因为学前过程对先天性听力损失而言是具有决定性的一个时期–并且在普通的小学和中学接受教育。那么,这些孩子在普校登记注册后,他们如何面对可能遇到的个体和社会特性的问题?

These are the children who are often labeled “forgotten” (Davis, 1990). They appear, and they do, perform better on speech, language, and academic tests than deaf children, although they will typically be deficient in these areas compared to normally hearing children. Often a hard of hearing child may be the only such child in a classroom or school. They’re the only ones who wear hearing aids and auditory training systems; they are further marked by being the ones often called out of the classroom for special tutoring; and because there are times when they may not be able to pick up on the rapid conversational exchanges, jokes, and idioms of their normally hearing peers, they may be and feel isolated from the larger group. In the fact that their primary mode for their initial-linguistic development was auditory, they are more like their normally hearing peers than they are like deaf children whose primary communication mode is visually based. In the fact that the hearing losses of the hard of hearing children often act as a barrier to complete inclusion in the larger group, they may feel isolated from the “mainstream” and, indeed, feel “deaf”. But they are not deaf and they know they are not deaf. Indeed, they may not even know any deaf people.

这些孩子常常被标识为”被遗忘”的孩子(Davis,1990)。在说话能力、语言文字表达能力、以及学校的考试当中,他们所展现出来的、所做到的、所完成的都比聋孩子好,尽管与听力正常的孩子相比他们在上述方面很明显地表现出来是有缺陷的。通常重听孩子可能是其所在班级乃至学校当中唯一的一个重听。他们会是唯一戴着助听器及听力矫正系统的那一个;他们更是唯一由于特殊辅导而常常被叫出教室的那一个;而且,因为他们有时可能无法了解听力正常同伴的快速会话交谈、幽默笑话、习惯用语,他们可能真的是或者感觉是在大集体中被孤立了。其实他们初期语言发展的主要方式是听力,他们更类同于听力正常的同伴,而与那些以视觉为基本沟通方式的聋孩子们不同。实际上,重听孩子的听力损失常常阻碍他们完全地融入大集体,他们也许觉得从”主流”中隔离了出来,确实,感觉是”聋的”。但是他们不聋而且他们自己也知道自己不聋。事实上他们可能不认得任何聋人。

These children do have conflicts in personal and social identity, and even though I am a strong advocate of their continued placement and education in regular, or modified regular school settings, we do these children no service by ignoring the realities that may confront them. On the positive side, we can ease their path: we can ensure that we have made the most use of their residual hearing; we can provide them with additional and enriched tutorial services; we can educate the normally hearing classmates regarding the realities of a hearing impairment; we can help build the hard of hearing child’s self-esteem through focusing on areas in which he or she excels; we can work very hard to foster self-acceptance, for with that comes the likelihood of acceptance by one’s peers; and, finally, we can ensure that we “remember” their special needs and special problems. ” Making” it in the regular school is not easy and it’s not painless, but the rewards are there. The academic performance of the average hard of hearing child is far superior to the average deaf child; when hard of hearing children finish school they have many more vocational opportunities, with a consequently higher socio-economic status than deaf people. And, perhaps most importantly, they now have the means and the opportunity to make choices – in their identity, in higher education, and in their vocations (Ross, 1992).

这些孩子在个人和社会身份认定上确有冲突,即使我强烈呼吁他们继续分布于普校接受教育,或者更改普校的课程设置以更适应他们的需求,我们仍然在帮助这些孩子忽略他们可能遇上的现实的问题上无能为力。在积极的方面我们可以使他们的道路变得平坦一些。我们能保证已经最大限度地使他们的残余听力发挥效力;我们能给他们提供额外的服务以及增加个人的辅导;我们能教育听力正常的同班同学尊重他们听力损害的事实;我们能通过关注重听孩子所擅长的领域而建立他/她的自尊;我们能非常努力地去培养重听孩子的自我认同以及更进一步地被其同伴所认同;最后,我们能保证我们”记得”他们的特殊需求和特殊问题。在普校取得”成功”是不易的,也不是无痛的,但是回报在那里。重听孩子在学校的表现整体上远远高于聋孩子;当重听孩子完成学校教育后他们就有更多的就业机会,结果是比聋人有更高的社会经济地位。而且,也许最重要的是,在他们的身份特性、高等教育和就业上,他们现在拥有选择的方式和机会(Ross,1992)。

I know, we all know, of hard of hearing children, educated partially or perhaps completely in regular schools who opt to join the deaf community. These are usually the children who felt the most isolated, the most separate from their normal hearing peers; their memories of their transition through childhood evokes mainly unpleasant and painful associations. As much as we may like to ignore these instances, this is a reality and one that we must accept. It happens, much as we would wish otherwise. If these children later find their comfort and acceptance in the deaf community, they have every right to make this decision. Some, indeed, may act as a bridge between the “Deaf” and “Hearing Worlds.” But while at some point, every hard of hearing child has the right to choose their personal and social identity, this does not absolve us of the initial responsibility of helping hard of hearing children maximize their potential – which, for them, includes using their residual hearing to the fullest. When we do this, we set up a level playing field for the child, rather than pre-ordaining the identity choice by an inadequate and insensitive early educational program.

我知道,我们都知道,在普校接受一部分或全部教育的一些重听孩子,选择加入聋人社区。他们通常是倍感孤独的孩子,也是最容易从听力正常的同伴中隔离出来的孩子;他们穿越整个孩提时代的人生转变期的记忆,所唤醒的内容大部分是痛苦和不快乐的。我们很多人都无视这些事实,但是这就是现实,这就是我们必须接受的现实。它发生了,虽然并非如我们希望的那样。如果这些孩子在以后的日子于聋人社区找到他们的安慰和认可,他们有权做出这样的选择。有些人确实可能充当起”聋”和”有声世界”的桥梁。每一个重听孩子都有权选择他们的个体和社会身份认定,即便如此,这并不免除我们的基本责任:帮助重听孩子尽量发挥他们的潜力,包括使他们最充分地使用自己的残余听力。当我们做这件事情时,我们就为孩子建立了一个让他们发挥作用的平台,而不是在不适当的和迟钝的早期教育过程中为他们事先做出了身份选择。

The questions of the personal and social identity of hard of hearing children seems most acute in the teen years. It is during this period that they are defining themselves, trying to decide what and who they are and what they want to be as they emerge into maturity. It is, and I’m sure that all parents of teenagers or former teenagers can attest to this, a difficult period for all youngsters, hearing-impaired or not. It is more so for hard of hearing children since they are also confronted with the choice of their hearing identity as well. They face a conflict which older hard of hearing people do not have, one which must be at least be acknowledged if we are to provide these children with the support they need.

重听孩子的个体和社会身份认定问题在十几岁时是最尖锐的。正是这个时期,他们要给自己一个定位,尝试去决定他们是谁,能做什么,成年后想要成为什么样的人。我相信所有的父母或曾经的青少年都可以证明,对于所有的青少年,不管有没有听力损害,这都是一个最困难的时期。对重听孩子更是这样,因为他们也同样地面临着选择他们的听力身份。他们面临着一个年长的重听人不会面临的冲突,我们至少必须知道是否能给这些孩子们提供他们所需要的支持。

Hard of hearing teenagers, coming out of a lifetime of being educated as a hard of hearing student in regular schools, may feel their “difference” very keenly. Often, they need the comfort of a group, young people with similar problems with whom they can identify, who can validate them as people of merit in spite of a hearing loss. It is this need that the International Federation of Hard of Hearing Young People (IFHOHYP) attempts to meet, and I do wish them well. I’m not sure how many members they have, but I’m sure they would a agree that it is only a small fraction of the potential numbers. In the United States, we’ve had some minimal and some abortive attempts to organize groups that focus only on hard of hearing young people; none seem to have taken root. By their very nature, however, successful or not, these must be transition programs; “young” people, to our personal regret (wouldn’t we all like to keep our youth?) do not stay “young”. Inevitably, they grow older. More such groups are needed, not to establish a “hard of hearing” identity akin the “Deaf’ identity, but for support and self-help purposes, something that can ease their transition into the larger society. The reality, then, even for young people, is that being hard of hearing does not consign them to a recognizable group, a common identity recognized by society. They remain members of the larger society, with variable abilities to participate fully in all of its aspects. Our goal must be to create the conditions which will enable them to more thoroughly participate in the general culture, in all of its manifold aspects.

重听青少年,一直在普校读书的重听学生,可以非常敏锐地感觉到他们的”不同”。他们常常需要集体的宽慰,这是由有着与他们类似的问题的年青人组成的集体,尽管有听力损失,这个集体能证明他们是有价值的人。国际重听青年联盟(IHFOHYP)致力于满足这种需求,我真心希望该联盟能把工作做好。我不确定他们有多少成员,但我可以肯定,他们也一定会同意,成员人数只是重听实际人数的极少一部分。在美国,我们初步地做了一些不太成功的尝试,去组建关注重听少年的组织:似乎没有一个能落地生根。然而无论成功与否,都必然要有转变的过程,让我们感到遗憾的是年青人不会永远年青(我们不都想保持青春吗?)。不可避免地,他们总要长大成人。需要有更多的这种组织,不是要建立与”聋”性一脉相承的”重听”特性,而是为了达到相互支持和自助的目的,使他们进入社会时,面对转变不那么困难。他们仍旧是社会的成员,有各种能力充分参与到社会的各个方面当中去。我们的目标必须是创造一个条件,能使他们更彻底地参与到大众文化及大众文化的各个方面当中去。

This is also the goal of the overwhelming majority of hard of hearing adults, who represent the overwhelming majority of people with hearing losses. They do not see themselves as outside the mainstream of their society. Hard of hearing adults have already formed their allegiances, completed their education, and arrived at a definition of what and who they were before the onset of the hearing loss. The hearing loss becomes an obstacle preventing them from realizing their expectations and desire to fully participate in the society; it is not a condition which defines who they are. Their focus – our focus – is on removing or minimizing these obstacles. Unlike Deaf people, we don’t view our hearing loss as the defining condition for our identity, nor feel any sense of pride in the fact that we have difficulty hearing. I don’t know of any hard of hearing person who, if some magic cure were available, if they could take a pill tonight and wake up with normal hearing tomorrow, would not scramble to get on the right line to receive the pill. But since such magic cures are, unfortunately, not available, what most hard of hearing people do when the hearing loss is first evident, is to deny that it exists, to themselves and to others.

这也是绝大部份重听成年人的目标,他们代表绝大多数的听力损失者。他们并不把自己视为主流社会之外的那一部份。重听成年人在听力受损之前,他们的观念已经形成,他们的教育已经完成,他们已经对自己有了明确的定位。听力损失成为一种障碍,阻碍着他们充分投身社会的愿望和渴盼;听力损失并不是成为他们自我定义的条件。他们关心的,也是我们关心的是:扫除这些障碍或使之最小化。与聋人不同,我们不把听力损失看作是身份(特性)的先决条件,也不为我们听力困难而产生任何骄傲感。如果有一种神奇的药,今晚吃一片明早醒来听力就恢复正常,我不知道重听人有谁不挤车排除买药去。可是没有这种神奇的药,重听人第一次有明显的听力损失时,大部分人所做的就是于人于己都否认听力损失的存在。

Our societies are full of people who deny that they are having difficulty hearing, who project the reason for communication breakdowns onto their communication partners; these are accused of “not talking clearly” or talking extra softly, or whatever. Often, it may be years before some hard of hearing people acknowledge that the problem resides in their ears and not in the mouths of other people. But, without self-acceptance, no help will be sought and none will be given.

我们的社会充满了这样的人:他们否认自己听力困难,他们把阻碍交流的原因归于对方身上,指责对方吐词含糊或者说话声音太小之类的。有些重听常常在多年这后才承认问题出在他们自己的耳朵上而不是出在别人的嘴上。但是没有自我承认,就找不到帮助,什么也无法得到。

This is where national organizations of hard of hearing people, and IFHOH itself, can make a significant contribution. In the fact that we provide, visibility to the reality of the hard of hearing condition, that we do not feel any sense of stigma or feel somehow diminished as human beings because we have a hearing loss. By our own self-acceptance, by acting as role models and advocates, we can appeal to the many more hard of hearing people in our societies to come out of the closet, to accept and deal with the reality of their hearing losses. Right now, our best estimate is that in developed countries only about 20 percent of people who can benefit from hearing aids wear them. These percentages, as we well know, would be even poorer in developing countries. It is not just a matter of economics. If this were the only factor, then most hard of hearing people in the developed countries would be using amplification. The issue really is self-acceptance. It’s not easy to move hard of hearing people out of their self-constructed closet of isolation and despair. Among the hurdles that must be overcome are the association of hearing loss with increasing age and infirmity and the psychological blow to one’s self-esteem that this acknowledgment may entail.

这就是重听人组织和IFHOH自身做出的重大贡献。事实上我们提供的是让更多人正视重听的现实条件,我们并不因为有听力损失就感到丢脸或觉得低人一等。藉着我们的自我认识,藉着我们充当榜样和倡导者,我们能够呼吁更多的重听人接受和对待听力损失的现实。目前,我们最乐观的估计是,在发达国家只有大约20%的人藉由所戴的助听器受益。而且,如我们所知,在发展中国家这个百分比值更少。它不仅仅是经济问题,如果经济是唯一的影响因素,那么在发达国家使用助听器的重听人数应当更多。问题的根本在于自我认识。促使重听人从自建的孤独与绝望的囚笼中走出来绝非易事。在这些困难当中,我们必须克服的是:听力损失与年纪增长、体质虚弱相关,还有可能必须承认精神上吹鼓的自尊。

However difficult this may be, the alternative is worse. People in contact with a hard of hearing person are aware that a problem exists. They note the misunderstood words, the unusual or irrelevant responses to spoken comments, the repetition of previously covered material, the withdrawal from conversational situations or attempts to dominate conversations – they can see, in other words, the effects of the hearing loss. If these other people are not aware that the hearing loss is the primary cause of these aberrant behaviors, then they will attribute these strange responses to other reasons, such as senility, aloofness, ignorance, or mental illness. The preferred choice seems obvious.

无论这有多困难,其他情况可能更糟。与重听人打过交道的人都知道一个问题。他们注意到被误解的词句、对言辞评论的异常或无关的反应、重复先前叙述过的内容、退出谈话、试图支配谈话-换言之,他们能察觉到听力损失的影响。如果旁人不知道听力损失是导致这些失常行为的根本原因,他们就会把这些奇怪的反应归咎于其它原因,如:衰老、冷漠、无知或精神病。人们倾向于何种选择显而易见。

I have already alluded to the fact that I don’t think that a “hard of hearing” entity exists. So it is ironic in a way that the first step in any kind of remediation effort is for people with hearing losses to acknowledge that they are indeed hard of hearing. But what they are acknowledging is a condition and not an identity. If we – and by we I mean the many national organizations of hard of hearing people represented here – are successful in recruiting new members, this does not mean that they have acquired a new identity. What it does mean is that they are seeking support and information so that they can more effectively continue their usual pursuits. They may come to our organizations feeling somewhat stressed and overwhelmed by the impact the hearing loss has been having on their lives. Perhaps there has been conflict in the family because of communication breakdowns, or one’s whole pattern of life has been disrupted because of an inability to continue former social, cultural, or vocational activities. The group support is not aimed at developing a new identity, but is aimed as assisting a person to assume his or her previous identity, and by this I mean one’s former pattern of behaviors as much as possible.

我已经暗示了一个事实:我不认为存在有”重听”实体。所以多少有点讽刺意味的是在任何一种补救所做出的努力中,第一步却是让听力损失者认识到他们确实是重听。但是,他们所认识的是一个条件而不是一个身份。我们-我指的是在这里出席的诸国重听人组织-是否成功地吸收新成员,并不意味着他们获得了一个新的身份。这是说他们在寻找能够使他们能更有效地继续他们一贯的追求的支持和信息。他们来到我们这个组织可能是有些压力,听力损失给他们的生活带来冲击。也许由于沟通不便在家庭中有矛盾,或许由于无法继续以前社会、文化、职业上的活动而导致个人整个生活方式土崩瓦解。这个群体支持的目标不是发展一个新身份,而是协助一个人继续他/她以前的身份,这意思是:尽可能保持以前的行为方式。

In a sense, our success with people who join our organizations is often our failure as well. Many of the people who come through our organizations, and take the benefits that a self-help and advocacy group can offer, later leave the organization after they have received these benefits. They don’t stay with the group precisely because this group membership does not define their identity. In this respect, organizations of hard of hearing people function much like many, but not all, support groups in general. When the presenting issue or problem has been resolved, the feeling is that there is no longer any point in staying involved.

在某种意义上说,人们加入我们的组织,是我们的成功,常常也正是我们的失败。很多人通过这个组织,获得自助与倡导者社团提供的帮助,获益后就离开了。他们不留在团队当中,因为这个团队的全体成员并不为他们的身份下定义。在这方面,重听人组织的作用更像许多一般社会团体(不是全部的)。解决了问题后就感觉到再没可以停留之处。

I think we need another model for hard of hearing people, one that overlaps and extends the traditional benefits of support group interactions. We need to define ourselves not as a common identity, but as a common interest group, a constituency if you will, that speaks out and represents our welfare. In this respect, the model I would like to see adopted is the one represented by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). This group represents the interests of older people in the US and has 33 million paid members. None of the politicians or bureaucrats in our country would take any action, in any matter affecting older people, without at least considering the response of the AARP. Older people are members of this organization purely on the basis of self-interest, but by virtue of their membership, they are also helping other older people as well since they add numbers to the power and influence of the organization.

我认为我们应该为重听人另设一个模式,这个模式藉着社团内部的互相影响从而覆盖和扩大其传统利益。我们不需要定义我们自己为另一身份(特性),而是作为一个共同利益的社团,如果你愿意,那么也可以代表团体的福利而且广而告之。在这方面,我乐意采用美国退休人员协会(AARP)所展示的模式。在美国这个协会代表着老年人的利益,有3300万付费会员。在对老年人切身利益有影响的事情上,没有AARP的响应,美国任何一个政客或官僚都不会采取行动。老年人成为这个协会的会员纯粹是基于自身利益。但是,由于成员之间的关系,他们也帮助其它老年人,由于其它人加入协会加强了组织的作用力和影响力。

Hard of hearing people, on the other hand, rarely join or stay members of organizations composed of hard of hearing people. Perhaps we should also start appealing to self-interest. For example, there are 24 million hard of hearing people in the US, but of them only about 25,000 belong to Self Help for Hard Hearing People, either at the local or national level. Proportionate to the possible membership, we represent a minuscule number of hard of hearing people. If in spite of our relatively few members, we have been effective advocates for hard of hearing people in our country – thanks to our founder Rocky Stone and his successor Donna Sorkin – just imagine how effective we could be with 100 times the number of members?

另一方面,重听人很少加入或留在重听人组成的组织当中成为其中的成员。也许我们也应该为自身利益发起呼吁。比如,美国有2400万重听人,但是全国和地区SHHH组织的所有成员只有2.5万。相对于重听人实际总数,我们表现出的只是一个极小的数字。尽管我们的成员相对较少,但由于我们的创始人Rock Stone和他的继承人Donna Sorkin的努力,在我国我们已经成为卓有成效的倡导者,试想,若成员数目增加100倍,又该产生多大的影响?

The point we must get across is that by joining with us, they are not thereby redefining their central identity. What they are doing is what democracies generally do: groups form themselves into constituencies that represents their interest. And their interest is not to separate from society, not to develop a sub-culture of hard of hearing people, but to so structure society, in particular in reducing the impact of the hearing loss, so that they can more fully be a participating member of the larger society. Hard of hearing want to be part of what they’ve always been part of, their hearing families and friends, their work, their familiar world, and the continued opportunity for self-fulfillment in all of its manifestations.

我们必须清楚表明的一点是:通过加入到我们当中,他们不必对他们的主要身份和特性再做定义。他们要做的就是民众通常所做的:把他们自己结集成团体以代表他们的利益。而且他们的利益不会从社团中剥离出去,也不形成重听人的亚文化,而是成为这样一个社会机构,致力于减少听力损失的冲击,于是他们能够更彻底地成为社会的成员。重听想要充当的角色就是已经充当了的角色-在他们的亲友、他们的工作、他们熟悉的世界中的角色,还有在各个方面继续有机会达成自己的愿望。

References 参考文献
Davis, H. (1990) Our Forgotten Children: Hard-of-Hearing Pupils in the Schools. Bethesda, MD: SHHH Publications
Davis, H.(1990)《我们被遗忘的孩子:学校里的重听(小)学生》Bethesda. MD:SHHH刊物
Ross, M. (1990). Implications of Delay in Detection and Management of Deafness. Volta Review, 92, 69-79.
Ross, M.(1990)《耽误检查与耳聋处理的含义》Volta评论,92,69-79
Ross, M., Bracket, D. & Maxon, A. B. (1991). Assessment and Management of Mainstreamed Hearing Impaired Children. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Ross, M., Bracket, D.和Maxon, A.B. (1991)《评价和管理主流社会听力受损的孩子》Austin, TX ro-Ed
Ross, M. (1992). Implications of Audiologic Success. J. Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 3, 1-4.
Ross, M.(1992)《听力学成就之含义》J.听力康复学院,3,1-4
Stone, H. E. (1993). An Invisible Condition. Bethesda, MD: SHHH Publications.
Stone, H.E.(1993)《隐蔽状态》Bethesda, MD:SHHH刊物

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重听人的个体和社会群体身份

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已有 6 条评论
  1. 无声之路

    不错

    2014年2月12日 15:57来自移动端 回复
  2. 嗯我也想多多了解聋人的文化

    2014年2月6日 11:52来自移动端 回复
  3. 放眼向洋看世界!很不错的一个站,只要不影响浏览,挂几个广告无所谓,别太多就行!

    2013年4月9日 20:09 回复
    • 大安

      不多挂几个广告,你让网站怎么存活下去?每年的服务器开销,谁来承担???

      2013年5月21日 16:50 回复
    • 嗯我也想多多了解聋人的文化

      2014年2月6日 11:51来自移动端 回复
  4. `安静地縼葎``

    我刚才看过了 感觉这些了解自己的聋人生活和工作、学习方式都位置的地方不一样

    2012年8月16日 10:38来自QQ 回复