手语使聋人全面充分地受教育

手语使聋人全面充分地受教育

世界聋人联合会主席科林·艾伦在2015年7月6日第22届聋人教育国际会议上的公开演讲

尊敬的各位与会者:

我代表世界聋人联合会感谢你们邀请我作为这一历史性事件的演讲人之一。这些年来,世界聋人联合会一直与国际残疾人联盟合作,致力于在联合国倡导发展提高聋人教育水平。同时,世界聋人联合会已经支持了134个国家层面的聋人协会(我们的普通成员)去游说本国政府根据联合国《残疾人权利公约》第24项条款履行他们的义务。

距离2006年《残疾人权利公约》获得通过已经过去多年,这一公约使得手语教育权利得到保护。保障聋童通过手语方式接受教育以及教师具备流畅的手语能力是各国政府的义务。然而,世界聋人联合会注意到实施情况并非设想的那样,因为政府不知道如何在手语语言环境中提供教育。世界聋人联合会在2009年发布了一项关于聋人和人权的报告,这一报告反映了聋人教育质量低下,他们鲜有机会通过手语接受教育。口语方式以及整体的沟通在教育体系中占主导地位。今年早些时候,世界聋人联合会要求更新有关聋人教育方面的信息并收到来自于46个国家的回,我想向你们展示一下我们组织成员国伊朗的视频留言

正如你们从视频中看到的,聋童接受手语教育的权利没有得到保护。根据我们最新收集的信息,无论在发达国家还是发展中国家这种情形历年来都没有得到改善。在有些国家,政府对融合教育的理解实际上使得聋童的教育机会变得更加糟糕,因为聋童被安置离家近的学校上学,但政府却丝毫不去考虑到如何用手语为聋童提供教育。这个领域需要更全面的信息和研究,所以在过去的这些年里,世界聋人联合会一直在为一项聋人教育调查项目寻求资金。

国际残疾人联盟由七个世界性残疾人组织以及四个区域性残疾人组织构成,该联盟目前正在起草一项关于融合教育的政策文件。世界聋人联合会与其他成员组织一起致力于这项工作,以确保这个政策文件中提及聋人与手语问题。此前,世界聋人联合会与国际残疾人联盟一道,积极参与和见证了《残疾人权利公约》获得通过的过程。如今,其他残疾人组织已在关注《残疾人权利公约》第24项条款的履行情况。因此,在在主张改善教育的可行性及质量方面我们继续与他们合作是十分重要的。一旦敲定,对聋人群体游说他们国家政府以及教育利益相关者来说,国际残疾人联盟的政策文件将成为有价值的资产。

残疾人权利委员会正在准备一份有关第24项条款的一般性意见草案以明确政府的义务以及为确保所有残疾人的教育质量所应当采取的措施。世界聋人联合会支持这种主动性的作法,并采取了一些行动以影响即将形成的文件。根据残疾人权利委员会要求民间团体输入的资料,世界聋人联合会与我们的区域合作伙伴——聋人欧洲联盟一起提出了一项关于聋人教育的申请。2015年4月,在第十三届残疾人权利委员会中,世界聋人联合会主办了一次关于聋人教育的会议,以解释如何获得手语学习环境以及哪些措施应当得到考虑。两位来自于发展中国家(多米尼加共和国和蒙古)的聋人代表参与了聋人教育与法律专家小组。在由残疾人权利委员会组织的有关残疾人教育权利的一般性讨论那天,世界聋人委员会名誉主席马尔库·约基宁博士应邀参与小组辩论。他在残疾人权利委员会面前澄清世界聋人联合会不主张特殊教育或隔离教育,而认为手语教育应当是融合教育体系中的一部分。残疾人权利委员会将发表关于第24项条款的意见草案,以明确哪些民间团体在最终版本通过之前有机会发表意见。

世界聋人委员会的观点是手语学习环境是融合教育体系的一部分。融合教育体系意味着无障碍学习环境,对于聋人学生的来说意味着能提供手语学习环境。必须同时考虑到某些因素,此种教育体系对于聋人学生来说才能被认为是融合性的,这些因素是:可获得性、通用设计、非歧视性做法、满足学生的需要、合理化安置(住宿)以及个性化支持。例如,提供专业的手语翻译作为唯一的措施是不够的,因为这样聋人学生还是无法与他的教师与同龄人无障碍交流。

为保障学习环境在语言及文化上都是可理解的,应当做到以下几个方面:

  • 所有交流都是可获得的。
  • 学习教与学过程应保持文化与语言的敏感性。
  • 如《残疾人权利公约》中提到的,课程应包括聋人团体要素,聋人文化和手语,目的是培育聋人团体的语言认同和发展。
  • 学习环境在视觉和触觉上可获得的。
  • 教材应保持文化与语言的敏感性。

融合教育应尊重基于聋人文化以及聋童的语言和文化认同的多样性。真正的融合教育应基于这些孩子的需要,并为他们能充分发挥自身潜力成为独立个体和公民铺平道路。

改善聋人教育现状,使《残疾人权利公约》的第24项条款成为现实,我们还有很多工作要做。世界聋人联合会非常愿意与从事聋人教育的教师、研究者和专家一起合作,确保聋童通过手语学习方式接受高质量的教育。全球聋人团体需要与各类利益相关者包括聋童的父母以及相关机构一起工作。

最后,我希望得到你们的支持,签署一份新时代的文件,这份文件最初是在加拿大温哥华2010年举办的第21次聋人教育会议上提呈的,它是反对1880年米兰会议上提出的聋童教育方案中禁止使用手语的规定。我们需要共同努力使我们的政府尊重和理解手语学习环境意味着什么,并与本国聋人团体一起促进聋人教育。

谢谢!

翻译:@倾城之恋     校对:@MJ       来源:@Mr无敌小耗子

国外聋人资讯翻译志愿者QQ群:559178945

Full Accessibility to Deaf Education through Sign Language

Opening Statement – WFD President Colin Allen 22nd International Congress on the Education of the Deaf
6 July 2015

Distinguished participants of the Congress,
On behalf of the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) I would like to thank you for inviting me to be one of presenters at this historic event. For many years, the WFD has advocated for improvements in deaf education at the United Nations level and working together with the International Disability Alliance (IDA). Simultaneously, the WFD has supported 134 national associations of the deaf from all over the world (our ordinary members) in their efforts to lobby for their governments to implement their obligations under Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

A few years have passed since the adoption of the CRPD (in 2006) where the right to education in sign language is secured. It is the obligation of national governments to ensure that deaf children are educated in sign language and that teachers are fluent in sign language. However, the WFD has noticed with concern that the implementation has not been successful as envisaged because national governments do not have an understanding of how education should be provided in a sign language environment. The WFD launched a report on deaf people and human rights in 2009 that reflects a poor quality of education for deaf people and scarce opportunities for them to receive education in sign language. Oral methods and total communication are dominant in educational systems. Earlier this year, the WFD requested updated information on deaf education and received responses from 46 countries. I would like to show you a video message from our member organisation in Iran.

As you could see from the video, the right of deaf children to receive sign language is not secured. According to our findings from the latest collection of information, the situation in both developed and developing countries has not improved over the years. In some countries, governments’ understanding of inclusive education has actually worsened deaf children’s educational opportunities because deaf children are being placed in schools near their homes without any consideration of how to provide education in sign language and access to their environment. During the past years, the WFD has been seeking funding for a deaf education survey project because more much comprehensive information and research is needed in this field.

The International Disability Alliance (IDA), comprised of seven global and four regional organisations of persons with disabilities, is currently drafting a policy paper on inclusive education. The WFD has contributed in this work together with other member organisations to ensure that deaf and sign language issues are addressed in the forthcoming policy paper. Previously, the WFD was heavily involved in IDA’s efforts during the negotiations that led to the adoption of the CRPD. Currently, other organisations of persons with disabilities have their concerns about the implementation of Article 24 of the CRPD. Therefore it is important for us to continue collaborating with them in our advocacy work to improve the availability and quality of education. Once finalised, the IDA policy paper will be an asset for Deaf Communities in lobbying their national governments and educational stakeholders.

The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD Committee) is preparing a draft general comment on Article 24 to clarify governments’ obligations and what measures need to be taken to ensure qualified education for all persons with disabilities. The WFD welcomes this initiative and has taken several actions to influence the context of the upcoming document. Upon request of the CRPD Committee for input from civil society, the WFD made a submission together with our regional co-operation partner, the European Union of the Deaf, on deaf education. In April 2015, the WFD hosted a side-event on deaf education during the 13th session of the CRPD Committee explaining how sign language learning environments could be achieved and what measures need to be taken into account. Two deaf representatives from developing countries (the Dominican Republic and Mongolia) were involved in the panel along with deaf educational and legal experts. On the Day of General Discussion on the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities, organised by the CRPD Committee, WFD Honorary President Dr Markku Jokinen was invited to be one of the panellists. He clarified before the CRPD Committee that the WFD never advocated for special or segregated education but views education in sign language as part of an inclusive education system. The CRPD Committee will publish a draft general comment on Article 24 to which civil society has the opportunity to give comments before a final version is adopted.

From WFD’s perspective a sign language learning environment is part of an inclusive education system. The system means a barrier-free learning environment that would mean the provision of sign language learning environments in the case of deaf students. Several factors need to be taken simultaneously into account before an education system can be considered inclusive for deaf students: accessibility, universal design, nondiscriminatory practices, meeting students’ needs, reasonable accommodation and individual support. For instance, the provision of professional sign language interpretation as the only measure is insufficient because a deaf student wouldn’t be able to communicate with teachers and peers without barriers. In order to ensure that a learning environment is linguistically and culturally accessible, the following aspects need to be covered:

  • All communication is accessible
  • The learning process and teaching are both culture and language-sensitive
  • The curriculum includes elements of deaf community, deaf culture and sign language with aims to nurture the linguistic identity and development of the deaf community (Article 24.3(b)), as mentioned in the CRPD
  • The learning environment is visually and tactually accessible
  • The learning materials are culture- and language-sensitive

Inclusive education is about respecting diversity based on deaf culture, and the linguistic and cultural identity of deaf children. A truly inclusive education is based on the needs of these children and is one that paves the way that will enable them to grow into individuals and citizens with full potential.

There is lots of work to be done to improve the situation of deaf education to make Article 24 of the CRPD a reality. The WFD is more than happy to cooperate with teachers, researchers and professionals working within deaf education to ensure that deaf children receive quality education in sign language. The global deaf community needs to work with various stakeholders including parents of deaf children and their organisations.

Finally, I would like to ask you for your support by signing the New Era Document that was originally presented in the 21st Congress on the Education of the Deaf in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada, to reject the resolutions of the Milan 1880 Congress that banned the use of sign language from educational programmes for deaf children. We need to unify our efforts to train national governments to respect and understand what a sign language learning environment means and to work with national deaf communities to improve deaf education.
Thank you.

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手语使聋人全面充分地受教育

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